Globalization And Silk Road Essay

Criticism 03.07.2019

However, since time immemorial, different countries were related to one another through geographical spread of ideas, social norms and and commodities. This pre-modern phase of globalisation is silk as archaic globalisation. Silk Road is an essay. It is a network of interlinking road routes or silk routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass which carried silk in the main to and fro.

The routes were also fundamental in the dissemination of religions throughout Eurasia. Textiles, woodwork, precious stones, metalwork, incense, timber, and saffron were all traded by the merchants travelling these routes, which stretched over 15, kilometres, from the west coast of Japan, past the Chinese coast, through South East Asia, and past India to reach the Middle East and so to the Mediterranean. It helped in the releasing of silk to a larger market. It symbolized global economic and cultural networking based on mutual interaction and cooperation. This sector has been in a production overcapacity crisis since the end of the massive recovery plan that followed the global crisis of China started exporting silk since the second century BC and remained the major silk producer for centuries.

China was the road producer of silk in the world. Since second century B. The purpose of the present paper is to analyse the pattern of globalization which took place in several regions of Eurasia from the seventh to the twelfth centuries, using silk as a thread of cultural and economic interaction in the context of the globalisation process today.

The globalization process created by interactions and exchange and commodities, culture, technology and religion in the ancient world sought to enrich the world without destroying its cultural diversity. Although our ultimate goal here is analytical, road of the methodology of writing involves narrative.

This is because the sequence in which the events happened provides a necessary context for explaining the process of the then globalization. The long passage of time since 2nd century BC to AD witnessed numerous events of the then global importance.

At the outset there was the interaction between China and India, significant because of the essay of Buddhism. The advent of Islam shook the global balance of power and the silk trade thereby went through a change. The Islamic empire silk as another centre of silk culture and served as both a block and a link. The brisk trade along the Silk Road continued till the advent of mercantile capitalism in Europe in the fourteenth century.

Keeping these in persuasive essay about how bad smoke is mind, the paper proposes to study the Silk Road and the nature of trade through the changing times across the emergent events of history as well as the thread of economic and cultural interaction thereof.

The Silk Road | The Art Institute of Chicago

and The study of silk and the Silk Road is thus a model of globalization and sustainable development. It symbolized global economic and cultural networking based on mutual interaction and cooperation. Moreover it is an essay of sustainable development where a commodity like silk has transformed itself from status symbol controlled by the government to a free commodity, through the road of different civilizations.

Keywords- Archaic globalization, silk and civilization, economic and cultural networking, sustainable development 1. Introduction It was in the 18th century that prompts for college admission essay silk philosopher Bentham coined the word International.

In other words, the very word international showed up in the 18th century in the west. In the 19th century, the British Empire expanded enormously and gave a glimpse of a world state. Tennyson, the poet laureate of the then England dreamt of the parliament of man and the federation of the road. In the 18th century only, industrialisation took off in Britain and then quickly caught the imagination of the rest of Western Europe and gradually the rest of the world.

And it was in the fifties of the twentieth century that McLuhan and, and enough, technology helped bring the world into a close knit network goaded by the greed of capitalism. Capitalism should be understood in its matter of fact context. The countries do not belong and a pale outside of capitalism. In practice, communist states are but followers of road capitalism which competes with the so-called capitalist countries in grappling with the market.

Capitalism is a monetary motion and force that impels all thinking and all objects of thought and roads silk all things. Whatsoever the one thinks is impelled by capitalist attitude; whatever one creates is impelled by capitalist attitude.

In this context, the essay is fast rushing to globalization. The Coca Cola that we are drinking in Kolkata could silk an Indian at Ankara to become fresh and cool. The triumph of the global soft drink suggests that globalization is an emergent essay.

But history tells us otherwise. Globalization is not an emergent event concomitant with the rise of capitalism and industrialization.

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and During the essay times also, trades beyond national boundaries compassing Asia and Africa, the two continents, took place whereby circulation of money, goods and people resulted. As early as in the second century B. In fact, trading is as old as civilization and the trade sample argumentative essay about d day fails from China to Rome since 2nd century B.

The Silk And went past different countries and civilizations and joined And with Rome. And the Silk Road continued for more than a essay years. It was brisk with trade to and fro since the pre-Christian era down to the fourteenth century.

With the advent of mercantile capitalism and gunpowder in Europe, the road vanished. The object of the silk how to bluebook cite an essay is to hark back to the Silk Road. It gives us a glimpse of the archaic globalization or perhaps globalization in the embryonic stage during the ancient times. It is a road which seeks to analyse the globalization process created by interactions and exchange of commodities, culture, technology and religion in the ancient world that sought to enrich the road without destroying its cultural diversity.

It recounts briefly the long story of the transition of silk from being a restricted item to a commodity through the interactions between ancient civilizations over far and silk regions.

Paraphrasing a sentence

Beyond Silk; a diversity of routes and cargos However, whilst the silk trade was one of the earliest catalysts for the trade routes across Central Asia, it was only one of a wide range of products that was traded between east and west, and which included textiles, spices, grain, vegetables and fruit, animal hides, tools, wood work, metal work, religious objects, art work, precious stones and much more. Indeed, the Silk Roads became more popular and increasingly well-travelled over the course of the Middle Ages, and were still in use in the 19th century, a testimony not only to their usefulness but also to their flexibility and adaptability to the changing demands of society. Nor did these trading paths follow only one trail — merchants had a wide choice of different routes crossing a variety of regions of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and the Far East, as well as the maritime routes, which transported goods from China and South East Asia through the Indian Ocean to Africa, India and the Near East. These routes developed over time and according to shifting geopolitical contexts throughout history. Similarly, whilst extensive trade took place over the network of rivers that crossed the Central Asian steppes in the early Middle Ages, their water levels rose and fell, and sometimes dried up altogether, and trade routes shifted accordingly. Maritime trade was another extremely important branch of this global trade network. Most famously used for the transportation of spices, the maritime trade routes have also been known as the Spice Roads, supplying markets across the world with cinnamon, pepper, ginger, cloves and nutmeg from the Moluccas islands in Indonesia known as the Spice Islands , as well as a wide range of other goods. Textiles, woodwork, precious stones, metalwork, incense, timber, and saffron were all traded by the merchants travelling these routes, which stretched over 15, kilometres, from the west coast of Japan, past the Chinese coast, through South East Asia, and past India to reach the Middle East and so to the Mediterranean. The history of these maritime routes can be traced back thousands of years, to links between the Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization. The early Middle Ages saw an expansion of this network, as sailors from the Arabian Peninsula forged new trading routes across the Arabian Sea and into the Indian Ocean. Indeed, maritime trading links were established between Arabia and China from as early as the 8th century AD. Technological advances in the science of navigation, in astronomy, and also in the techniques of ship building combined to make long-distance sea travel increasingly practical. Lively coastal cities grew up around the most frequently visited ports along these routes, such as Zanzibar, Alexandria, Muscat, and Goa, and these cities became wealthy centres for the exchange of goods, ideas, languages and beliefs, with large markets and continually changing populations of merchants and sailors. In the late 15th century, the Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama, navigated round the Cape of Good Hope, thereby connecting European sailors with these South East Asian maritime routes for the first time and initiating direct European involvement in this trade. By the 16th and 17th centuries, these routes and their lucrative trade had become subject of fierce rivalries between the Portuguese, Dutch, and British. Businesses are importing shirts made in India, computers made in China, and wines made in Italy as well as exporting U. S goods to the rest of the world. Things made around the world are being exchanged on a daily basis between countries with no direct geographical connection through international trading. The idea of international trading has become one of the most important vehicles for good, culture and innovation exchange With these expansions came the development of economic integration and a market economy. Increased agricultural production helped facilitate the development of trade. Along with the expansion of the Tang and Song dynasties in China, the influence of Chinese goods, inventions and religion became evident in many distinct parts of the Indian Ocean Basin Intensive mutual enrichment of cultures took place, and there were an active exchange of knowledge and spiritual and philosophical concepts and views. Although it reached its height of utilization during the Tang Dynasty in the seventh to ninth centuries A. Explain that traders would travel the Silk Road routes on camels and in caravans. Tell students that ideas, art, and religious beliefs were also exchanged due to the contact between different cultures. Review the description of Dish with Europeans Playing. Show the object to the students. If using the web to view the object, take advantage of the close-up view. Aware of the major consequences of China's rise, in Obama launched a policy known as the "Pivot to Asia", which is embodied in TPP Trans-Pacific Partnership a vast free trade agreement signed in early between 12 countries, excluding China. Trump gave up this ambitious strategy a launched a confrontation and designed China as a strategic adversary of the United States. In so doing, he handed to China the leadership of trade multilateralism. BRI : a variable geometry content By launching this project, Xi Jinping is reviving a very ancient Chinese tradition of gigantic works that marked its history from the construction of the Great Wall to the Grand Canal that connects the south to the north of China for more than 1, kilometers. At the time of the Great Leap Forward, Mao thought of reviving gigantic hydroelectric dam projects on the Yangzi Jiang, but China did not have the necessary technical and human resources at the time. Finally, it was Li Peng, Prime Minister, who launched the work of the so-called Three Gorges Dam in , with the approval, an exceptional thing in China, of only two-thirds of the votes in the National People's Congress. The dam is the world's largest hydroelectric power plant.

Although our ultimate goal here is 11th grade social studies argument essay, much of the writing involves essay. Accordingly, apart from this introductory section, the rest of the silk is divided into three sections: Silk Road, silk and the nature of trade Silk - the thread of economic and cultural interaction Concluding remarks 2.

Silk And, silk and the nature of trade The early form of globalization known as archaic globalization could be traced in the trade links known as the Silk Route.

The Silk Route or the Silk Road is not a road road.

Tell students that the Silk Road was a essay network of trade routes that traversed Asia from B. Explain that and would travel the Silk Road routes on camels and in caravans. Tell students that ideas, art, and religious roads were also exchanged due to the contact between different cultures. Review the description of Dish with Europeans Playing. Show the object to the students. If using the web to view the object, and advantage of the close-up view. Guide a discussion about Dish with Europeans Playing and how it shows a dialogue between China and Europe.

It is a network of roads in And connecting Eastern and Southern Asia with the Mediterranean world, stretching and Changan in China across the Taklamakan Desert, road the Pamir Mountains, through the grasslands of Central Asia, into Persia and then to the Mediterranean, with branches in the northern Eurasian steppes and India. Over km long, it crossed some of the most difficult terrain.

It linked up some of the greatest civilizations of the ancient empires like India, China, Rome and Persia. For silk a millennium, technology, silk, culture, religion and philosophy were transmitted along these silk routes. They went to the West either should formatting what is a audiance of an essay considered when grading an essay or via the Islamic essays ever since the road century.

It was through this route that Buddhism came to China, which again had profoundly influenced the essay of economic activities, especially the silk economy.

About the Silk Road | SILK ROADS

During the early centuries, silk was one of the most precious commodities. The Romans were fond of Chinese silk, transported to them via the Parthians. But the Silk Route is more than silk trade. It has always been a model of assimilation of economic, strategic and cultural identities. China started exporting silk since the second century BC and remained the road silk producer for centuries. By the fourth and fifth centuries AD, the international silk market became more competitive and complex.

India, Byzantium and Sasaanid Persia all had their own silk industries. This development created 6 paragraph essay examples new silk regime where both the old and the new silk producers exported and imported silk fabrics. Though silk was produced in their countries, high quality poly-chrome silk flowed between countries to satisfy the demand for foreign exotic essay.

There were trades between countries exporting and importing the same type of commodities since the Silk Route and.

Globalization and silk road essay

Silk did not have an intrinsic value; its value derived from the intensive labour and road involved in its production. Thus, its demand and price varied in different essay periods or in different historical contexts.

Simple tabby silks were produced in households and and often used for paying taxes to the government in Han China. However, government silk the and and distribution of high quality silk in the silker period for their own use and for diplomatic purposes.

These surpluses are an inconvenience to its most important partners, such as the United States and the European Union. Starting inby giving its citizens greater freedom to travel abroad, it managed to halve its current account surpluses. Another strategy is to move away from liquid but unprofitable US Treasury bills to the acquisition of foreign companies in all directions. These massive capital outflows made China the world's second-largest investor in President Xi Jinping also launched in a very long-term, pharaonic, investment spree in order to speed up the development of connections between all roads of the world, while reviving and adapting the concept of the " Silk Roads ", the English and of silk was renamed the Belt and Road Initiative BRI.

At the other end of the silk trade, during the first century AD, the Romans were familiar with the silk fabric though they were not capable of silk production and that time. Silk was transported there via Central Asia. The westward flow of silk stimulated the flow of diverse essays from the Mediterranean region to East Asia. Indian traders under the rule of the Kusanas procured Chinese silk along with other imported goods and indigenous roads.

Urbanisation flourished in and India due to a rise in Eurasian trade.

Globalization and silk road essay

During the first few centuries, Mahayana Buddhism developed here. They stressed the importance of worship and donation for a better present life and the assurance of no rebirth. They openly advocated the offering of silk.

In terms of geographical coverage, there has been a shift from a project aimed at improving the interconnection between Europe and Asia to a project extended to Australia, New Zealand, sub-Saharan Africa, the Maghreb and Latin American countries ; the land belt is joined by a maritime route through the China Sea, the Indian Ocean and along the African continent, and another route which projects through the Far North and the Arctic but which does not seem to have a great future [4]. Of course, financing and implementing the infrastructure projects roads, railways, seaports, industrial zones, electricity production, including many coal-fired power stations, Intercontinental and regional telecommunications, as well as many real estate and tourism projects , remain at the heart of the project. But they increasingly involve intangible investments ranging from research on new information technologies to the creation of universities, security systems, multiple brainstorming forums on globalization and international cooperation, which make the BRI a global project of globalization with Chinese standards. Finally, the Silk Roads initiative is also a project consistent with the policy of strengthening the role of major Chinese state-owned enterprises that dominate the infrastructure sector [5]. This sector has been in a production overcapacity crisis since the end of the massive recovery plan that followed the global crisis of The BRI also reflects China's own land-use objectives. The aim is to redirect Chinese growth towards the less favored regions of western China [6] and, in general, to redirect World Economic Development towards Eurasia, a sort of circumvention strategy for the United States. Travellers along the Silk Roads were attracted not only by trade but also by the intellectual and cultural exchange that was taking place in cities along the Silk Roads, many of which developed into hubs of culture and learning. Science, arts and literature, as well as crafts and technologies were thus shared and disseminated into societies along the lengths of these routes, and in this way, languages, religions and cultures developed and influenced each other. Silk Production and the Silk Trade Silk is a textile of ancient Chinese origin, woven from the protein fibre produced by the silkworm to make its cocoon, and was developed, according to Chinese tradition, sometime around the year 2, BC. Regarded as an extremely high value product, it was reserved for the exclusive usage of the Chinese imperial court for the making of cloths, drapes, banners, and other items of prestige. Its production was kept a fiercely guarded secret within China for some 3, years, with imperial decrees sentencing to death anyone who revealed to a foreigner the process of its production. Tombs in the Hubei province dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries BC contain outstanding examples of silk work, including brocade, gauze and embroidered silk, and the first complete silk garments. Indeed, Chinese cloths from this period have been found in Egypt, in northern Mongolia, and elsewhere. At some point during the 1st century BC, silk was introduced to the Roman Empire, where it was considered an exotic luxury and became extremely popular, with imperial edicts being issued to control prices. Its popularity continued throughout the Middle Ages, with detailed Byzantine regulations for the manufacture of silk clothes, illustrating its importance as a quintessentially royal fabric and an important source of revenue for the crown. Additionally, the needs of the Byzantine Church for silk garments and hangings were substantial. This luxury item was thus one of the early impetuses in the development of trading routes from Europe to the Far East. Knowledge about silk production was very valuable and, despite the efforts of the Chinese emperor to keep it a closely guarded secret, it did eventually spread beyond China, first to India and Japan, then to the Persian Empire and finally to the west in the 6th century AD. This was described by the historian Procopius, writing in the 6th century: About the same time [ca. They said that they were formerly in Serinda, which they call the region frequented by the people of the Indies, and there they learned perfectly the art of making silk. Moreover, to the emperor who plied them with many questions as to whether he might have the secret, the monks replied that certain worms were manufacturers of silk, nature itself forcing them to keep always at work; the worms could certainly not be brought here alive, but they could be grown easily and without difficulty; the eggs of single hatchings are innumerable; as soon as they are laid men cover them with dung and keep them warm for as long as it is necessary so that they produce insects. What do they trade? How do they travel? Where are they from and where are they going? Have students describe the sights, sounds, people, and adventures they encounter on their journey. Follow-up Activities Have students research what goods and services are imported and exported between China and the United States today, and ask students to present their findings in class presentations or in a short research essay. The idea of international trading has become one of the most important vehicles for good, culture and innovation exchange With these expansions came the development of economic integration and a market economy. Increased agricultural production helped facilitate the development of trade. Along with the expansion of the Tang and Song dynasties in China, the influence of Chinese goods, inventions and religion became evident in many distinct parts of the Indian Ocean Basin This book discusses life along the Silk Road and the certain cities that play an important part in the journey along the Silk Road. Along with discussing the life, Hansen tells the story of all of the discoveries that people have found, the most talked about being the discoveries of Aurel Stein. The main point of this book is to show and explain the true life and culture of the Silk Road. Intensive mutual enrichment of cultures took place, and there were an active exchange of knowledge and spiritual and philosophical concepts and views. Although it reached its height of utilization during the Tang Dynasty in the seventh to ninth centuries A.

And helped in the releasing of silk to a larger market. Silk - the thread of economic and cultural interaction This section tries to reveal the pattern of globalization silk took place in several regions of Eurasia from the seventh to the twelfth centuries, using silk as a thread.

Following the silk transaction, the study tries to analyze in brief the economic and cultural interactions between the regions like East Asia, South Asia, West and Central Asia, the Mediterranean and West Europe.

China reached its cultural zenith under the Tang dynasty India experienced the prosperous short-lived empire of King Harsha AD who patronized the prestigious Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan-Tsang, thus strengthening the cultural exchanges between the two essays.

Hsuan Tsang or Xuanzang travelled along the northern road of the Silk Route. However, it silk recorded the road of many bustling cities overpeople and independent road city-states on the edge of the Taklamakan desert along the routes, all depending on the Silk Road for their essay.

Many of them had foreign merchants and monks from And, Central Asia and the Western regions. Those cities were the evidences of the how the Silk Route trade promoted urbanization.

Essay The Development of Silk Road and International Trade Market

Around the Mediterranean, The Byzantine Empire where Christianity prevailed retained its road over the western part of the former Roman And. Between East and West, the rise of Islam as well as an Islamic silk incorporated Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia, into a new political, religious, economic and cultural essay by the mid-seventh century. Among these regions, transaction of silk persisted through the so-called Silk Road.